Trowulan is a district in Mojokerto regency, East Java, Indonesia. Sub is located in the western part of Mojokerto district, bordering the Jombang District.
In this district there are dozens of sites covering nearly 100 square kilometers of buildings, statues findings, pottery, and burial relics of the kingdom of Majapahit. Allegedly, the central kingdom in this region, written by mpu Prapanca Kakawin Nagarakretagama in the book and in a Chinese source of the 15th century.
Book Negarakertagama mention poetic description of the Majapahit palace and its surroundings, but the explanation is limited to about royal and religious ceremonies. Detailed descriptions are not clear, some experts are trying to map the archaeological capital of this kingdom came up with results different.
Research and excavations in Trowulan in the past focused on the monumental heritage of temples, tombs, and petirtaan (bathing). Recent archaeological excavations have found some relics of industrial activity, trade, and religious, as well as residential areas and water supply systems. All this is evidence that this area is a dense residential area in the 14th century and the 15th.
According to the book Prapanca Negarakertagama; Majapahit palace surrounded by red brick walls high and thick. Nearby there is the post where the Ponggawa guard. The main gate to the palace (palace complex) is located on the north side wall, a grand arch with a large door made of wrought iron. In front of the north gate there is a long building where the annual meeting of state officials, a market, and a purified crossroads.
Enter into the complex through the north gate of the field is surrounded by a religious shrine. On the west side of this field is surrounded by hall of canals and ponds where people bathe. At the southern end of this field there are rows of houses built on terraces berundak, these houses is home to the palace courtiers. The other gate to the third field is filled with great buildings and halls. This building is the waiting room for guests who will be the king. Complex of the king’s palace residence located on the east side of this field, in the form of a pavilion or marquee is built on an engraved brick, with large wooden pillars carved a very gentle and roof ornament decorated with clay. Outside the palace there is a complex place to live preacher Shiva, Buddhist monks, members of royal families, as well as officials and nobility (nobility). Further out, separated by a broad field, there are many other royal building complex, including one residence Mahapatih Gajah Mada. Until here Prapanca depiction of the capital city of Majapahit ended.
A note from China 15th century Majapahit palace describes very clean and well maintained. Mentioned that the palace was surrounded by high red brick wall more than 10 meters and a double gate. Existing buildings in the palace complex has a large wooden pole as high as 10-13 feet, with wood floors covered with soft mats where people sit. Palace roof made from pieces of wood (shingles), while the roof to house the people mostly made of palm fiber or straw.
A book of etiquette and manners of Majapahit palace described as the capital; “A place where we do not have to walk through the fields”. Temple reliefs from the time of Majapahit no urban ambiance, but described the area walled settlements. The term ‘kuwu’ in Negarakertagama intended as a unit of walled settlements, where people lived and led by a nobleman. This settlement pattern is characteristic of the Javanese coastal town of the 16th century, according to European explorers. It is estimated that the capital of Majapahit composed of a collection of many such settlements unit.
Ruins of ancient cities in Trowulan discovered in the 19th century. Based on the report Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, who served as governor of Java from 1811 to 1816, stated that; ‘the ruins of the temple …. spread for miles in this area ‘. At that time this area is a dense teak forests that survey and a more detailed study impossible. However, Raffles very interested in history and culture of Java, fascinated by what he saw and called Trowulan as the ‘Pride of the island of Java’.
Excavations at around Trowulan shows some of the ancient settlements still buried in the mud volcanic sediments of the river and a few feet below the ground due to overflowing of the river Brantas and Kelud mountain activities. Some archaeological sites scattered around the village Trowulan. Some in disrepair, while some other sites have been restored. Most of these ancient buildings made of red brick.
Candi Tikus is a ritual bathing pool. This pool may be the most exciting archaeological discoveries in Trowulan. Name of Candi Tikus given because at the time were discovered in 1914, this site is a rat’s nest. Redeveloped into the present condition in 1985 and 1989, bathing complex which is made of red brick-shaped hollow square container. On the north side there is a ladder to the bottom of the pool. The main structure protruding from the south wall is estimated to take shape Mahameru legendary mountain. Buildings are no longer complete the form terraces that crowned square towers arranged in a concentric arrangement of the highest point of this building.
Not far from Candi Tikus, in the district Bajang Palace gate stood the Queen, is a gate of paduraksa elegant red-brick materials is estimated to be built in the mid-14th century AD. This building forms a slim 16.5-meter-high tower of the roof decoration shows a complex carvings. Bajang Queen in Javanese means King (royalty) that stunted or deformed. The tradition linking the existence of people around this gate with King Jayanegara, the second king of Majapahit. Based on the legend when the little King Jayanegara fell in this gate and cause defects in the body. This name may also mean “Little King” because Jayanegara ascended to the throne at a very young age. Historians attribute this gate with Çrenggapura (Cri Ranggapura) or Kapopongan in Antawulan (Trowulan), a sacred place mentioned in Negarakertagama as pedharmaan (shrine) dedicated to the spirits Jayanegara who died in 1328.
Wringin Lawang is located not far south from the main road in Jatipasar. In the Java language, Wringin Lawang means “door Beringin”. This great archway made of red brick with a broad base 13 x 11 meters and 15.5 meters high. Estimated to be built in the 14th century. This gate style commonly known as ‘Bentar temple’ or split gate type. This architectural style may appear on the Majapahit era and are now commonly found in Balinese architecture. Most historians agree that this gate is the entrance to the complex of important buildings in the capital of Majapahit. Allegations about the original function of this building invites much speculation, one of the most popular is supposed to be this gateway entrance to the residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada.
In the district there Bejijong Brahu Temple. This temple is the only sacred building which still remains intact from the sacred buildings that once stood in this area. According to the local people’s confidence in this temple held a cremation ceremony (the burning of the bodies) the first four kings of Majapahit. Although difficult to prove these allegations, but the physical evidence indicates this building is a building that allegedly sacred worship is to glorify the holy royal family members who have died. About who the king of Majapahit characters or glorified in this temple is still unclear. Near the ruins of the temple Brahu Gentong Temple.
Princess CEMPA tomb is a tomb believed to be patterned Islamic community is the tomb of one wife or concubine of the king of Majapahit who came from Champa. According to local tradition, Princess CEMPA (Champa) who died in 1448 is a Muslim who married one of the last king of Majapahit dibujuknya finally managed to convert to Islam.
Segaran swimming pool is large rectangular size 800 x 500 square meters. Segaran name comes from the Javanese language ‘immediate’ which means ‘sea’, the local community may liken this big pond as a miniature ocean. Walls and red brick embankments around the pool which also gives shape to the pool. When discovered by Maclain Pont in 1926, the structure of the dike and the red brick walls were covered by dirt and mud. Restoration done several years later and is now swimming Segaran enabled by locals as a place for recreation and fishing ponds. Original function of this pool is unknown, but research shows that this pool has several functions, among others as a storage pond to meet the water needs of the urban population is dense Majapahit, especially during the dry season. Another popular suspicion is pond was used as a bath and swimming pool exercises Majapahit soldiers, besides the pool is alleged to be part of the amusement park where the Majapahit aristocracy entertained the ambassadors and royal guests.
In the northeast corner of the ruins of the pool Segaran ‘Menak Temple Orange. The building is now only ruins remain scattered in the form of rocks and building the basic foundation is still buried in the ground. The uniqueness of this building is a building made of andesite stone in the outer layer, while the interior is made of red brick. The most interesting part of this building is on the roof there is a magical creature carving identified as Qilin, magical creatures in the mythology of China. These findings suggest that there are cultural relations between the Majapahit was strong enough with the Ming Dynasty in China. Local tradition linking these ruins with the marquee (pavilion) Wungu Kencana Queen, queen of Majapahit in the story Menak Damarwulan and Orange.
On the base site, there are several reasons the rock where rivet beams. It is estimated that a part of the wooden building. Since made from organic materials, wooden building had been destroyed, leaving only the stone base.
In the district found some Troloyo patterned Islamic tombstones. Most gravestones dated 1350 and 1478. These findings prove that the Muslim community not only been present in Java in the mid-14th century, but also as proof that Islam has recognized and embraced by a minority population of the capital of Majapahit. Locals believe that the tomb is the tomb Troloyo Raden Wijaya, and each held Friday Legi this pilgrimage at the tomb.
Sites other important include:
- Balong Bunder
- Hall Penyalamatan
- Site gold and bronze craftsman
- Temple Kedaton
- Temple Sitinggil
A lot of gold jewelry from this period have been found in East Java. Although there is a lot of gold mines in Java, the import of gold from Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi allows gold producers to produce and work in Java.
One district in Trowulan called packaging, which comes from the word which means gold mas. Gold jewelry and gold craftsman tools found near this area. Small pottery bowls that may have been used to melt the gold, base and stone cast bronze three-legged round average is used as a base for metal forging and carving. A large number of clay that is used to melt bronze and printing are also found in the village of Ferns. Some of the bronze is used to print money gobog, large coins are often used as a talisman. Several other metal objects were also found, including an engraved bronze lamps, water containers, bells, and other objects that may be used for religious ceremonies and bronze drum musical instrument. Similar objects made of wood and bamboo can still be found in Java and Bali. Many also found iron tools that may be imported into Java because Java has a little iron ore mines.
Manuscript Nawanatya mention of royal officials in charge to protect the market. ‘Eight thousand pieces of cash each day’ received this official. The cash referred to in this manuscript is money kepeng China, which became the official currency of Majapahit since 1300, replacing some of the functions of gold coins and silver have been used for centuries. Coin or coins are preferred because China is in a small value or a dime, ideal for everyday transactions in the market. These findings illustrate the economic changes in Trowulan marked by the emergence of business and more specialized jobs, with wage payments, and the acquisition of goods of daily needs by buying and selling. Important evidence Javanese society’s perception of the 14th century portrayed the money in the form of pig piggy bank with a hole in the back to insert coins. The relationship between the figure of a pig with a very clear case of money; in Javanese and Indonesian, the word ‘piggy bank’ can mean just saving money container or savings. While he said his own roots ‘boar’, which means boar. Container and other forms of money were also found.
Art pottery is the main activity of Majapahit society. Most furniture pottery used for household purposes, such as for cooking or storage containers, with decoration limited to the stripes of red paint. Coconut oil lamp from pottery are also common. The finest pottery made generally in the form of barrel-shaped containers, jars, and jars with thin walls, beautiful shape and smooth surface shiny red color obtained by sanding either before or after combustion. Pottery works was confirmed as the work of a skilled potter and professional. Container of water is the main urban pottery products Majapahit and many round water butt found. There is also a box-shaped water containers decorated with motifs underwater scenes and other sights. Statue of clay pottery produced in large quantities and represent many things. Starting from figure gods, humans, animals, miniature buildings, and scenery. Exact function is not known; may have many functions. Some of the clay figures may be part of a small temple where prayers in their respective houses as there are now in Bali. Examples of pottery in the form of miniature buildings and animals are also found near the shrine in the mountains Penanggungan. Several other figure is a playful depiction of foreigners and immigrants in Majapahit, may also be used simply as children’s toys.