Tag Archive National

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Baluran National Park

Baluran National Park is representative of a specific forest ecosystem dry in Java, consists of savanna vegetation types, mangroves, forests season, coastal forests, mountain forests below, swamp forest and evergreen forests throughout the year. About 40 percent of savanna vegetation types dominate the area Baluran National Park.

BaluranVegetation

Plants in this national park as many as 444 species, 3 of them are native plants unique and interesting and able to adapt in a very dry condition (still looks green), although other plants wither, namely:

  • Widoro bukol (Ziziphus rotundifolia),
  • mimba (Azadirachta indica), and
  • pilang (Acacia leucophloea).

Other plants such as acid (Tamarindus indica), prasina (Dioscorea hispida), candle nut (Aleurites moluccana), gebang (Corypha utan), api-api (Avicennia sp.), Kendal (Cordia obliqua), manting (Syzygium polyanthum), and billowing (Sterculia foetida).

Creatures

There are 26 types of mammals such as the banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus), wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ajag (Cuon alpinus javanicus), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak), deer (Cervus timorensis russa), leopard (Panthera pardus melas), mouse deer ( Tragulus javanicus pelandoc), and cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

Animal bull was the mascot / characteristic of Baluran National Park.

In addition, there are about 155 species of birds including rare such as the kite fire (Hirundo rustica), tuwuk / tuwur asia (Eudynamys scolopacea), peacocks (Pavo muticus), red jungle chicken (Gallus gallus), kangkareng (Anthracoceros convecus ), hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), and stork barrels (Leptoptilos javanicus).

Some locations / attractions to be visited:

Bars. Seeing heritage / sites of the Japanese cave, the tomb of the son of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, peacocks dance attraction in the breeding season between the months of October / November and camping. Facilities: center and campground information.

Bekol and Semiang. Observations of forest animals such as chickens, peacocks, deer, deer, buffalo, wild buffalo, birds. Existing facilities: homestead researchers, guest house, the tower of view.

Bama, Balanan, Bilik. Marine tourism, fishing, diving / snorkeling, and fights between a male deer in July / August; and a flock of gray monkeys that crab fishing / small crab with its tail at low tide.

Manting, Air Bokor. Water sources that never dry throughout the year, leopard habitat.

Popongan, Sejile, Sirontoh, Kalitopo. Boating on a calm sea, seeing different types of ornamental fish, observing migratory birds.

Bulk tears. Activities of rock climbing as high as 10-30 meters, with a slope of up to 85%.

Season best visit: March to August each year.

Baluran National Park in east Java province, Indonesia Banyuwangi north or east of Situbondo, the gate to enter Baluran National Park at 7 ° 55’17 .76 “S and 114 ° 23’15 .27” E.

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National Museum

National Museum of the Republic of Indonesia or the Elephant Museum, is a museum located in Central Jakarta, and precisely at Jalan Merdeka Barat.

Museum GajahNational Museum of the Republic of Indonesia is one form of European influence, especially the spirit of the Enlightenment, which appeared in the 18th century. She was built in 1862 by the Dutch Government under Governor-General JCM Radermacher in response to the association Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen aimed at reviewing the scientific research in the Dutch East Indies. The museum was inaugurated in 1868, but as an institution in this museum was born in 1778, when the formation of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen by the Dutch government.

National Museum known as the Museum of elephants from the elephant statue compliment by King Chulalongkorn from Thailand in 1871. But on May 28, 1979, the name officially became the National Museum of the Republic of Indonesia. Then on February 17, 1962, the Cultural Institute of Indonesia to manage, submit to the Government of the Republic Museum, Indonesia. Since then, the management official museum by the Directorate General of History and Archeology, under the Ministry of Education and Culture. But starting in 2005, the National Museum under the management of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Notes on the website of National Museum of the Republic of Indonesia in 2001 showed that the collection had reached 109,342 units. The number of collections that make this museum is known as the most comprehensive in Indonesia. In the year 2006 the number had exceeded 140,000 collection of fruit, but only a third that can be shown to the audience.

National Museum JakartaElephant Museum collects a lot of ancient artifacts from all over the archipelago. Among others that include the collection are ancient statues, inscriptions, ancient objects and other craft items. Collections are categorized into the ethnography, bronze, prehistoric, ceramics, textiles, numismatic, historical relics, and precious objects.

Before the National Library building located at Jalan Salemba 27, Central Jakarta established, Elephant Museum collection includes manuscripts ancient. These texts and collections of the Museum Elephants are kept in the National Library.

Source of collections were from archaeological excavations, since the time of grant collectors and the purchase of the Dutch East Indies. Collection of ceramics and ethnographic collections in museums Indonesia is largest and most comprehensive in the world. This museum is the first and largest museum in Southeast Asia.

Collection of interest is the statue Bhairawa tallest statue in the National Museum, 414 cm tall is a manifestation of the god Lokeswara or Awalokiteswara, which is a manifestation of Boddhisatwa (radiance of Buddha) in the earth. This statue of a man standing over the body and a row of skulls and holding a cup from the skull in his left hand and a short keris with his right hand of the Arab style, is found in Roco Padang, West Sumatra. This statue is estimated to come from the 13th century – 14. The oldest collection of Buddhist statues in the museum Dipangkara Buddha statues made of bronze, copper is stored in a room in a separate glass case, a different fate with Buddha statues, Hindu statues of the oldest in the archipelago, Vishnu CIBUAYA (about 4M) is located in the living stone statue without text labels and hindered by the statue of Ganesha from the temple Banon.

Contact:

Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat 12
Jakarta 10110, Indonesia
Phone: +62 (0)21 386 8172

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Indonesia at a glance

Indonesia Republic of Indonesia or the Indonesian abbreviation is a country in Southeast Asia, is located on the equator and located between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Because it lies between two continents and two oceans, he also called Nusantara (Archipelago Between). Consists of 17,508 islands, Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world. With a population of 222 million people in 2006, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world and the country’s largest Muslim population in the world, although officially it is not an Islamic state. Form of government of Indonesia is a republic, the House of Representatives and the president directly elected. Jakarta is the capital city.

Indonesia is bordered by Malaysia on Borneo island, with Papua New Guinea on the island of Papua and East Timor on the island of Timor. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.

Welcome to BaliIndonesian history has been influenced by other nations. Indonesian archipelago became an important trade region since at least since the 7th century, when the Srivijaya Kingdom religious relations and trade with China and India. Kingdoms of Hinduism and Buddhism have developed in the early centuries AD, followed by the traders who brought Islam, and various European powers fought one another to monopolize the spice trade in the Moluccas during the era of ocean exploration. After about 350 years of Dutch rule, Indonesia declared its independence at the end of World War II. Indonesia next challenged by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, the process of democratization and the period of rapid economic change.

From Sabang to Merauke, Indonesia consists of various ethnic, linguistic and religious differences. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group and most politically dominant. Indonesia’s national motto, “Diversity single ika” ( “Diversity remains one”), means the diversity that shapes the country. Besides having a large population and a dense region, Indonesia has a natural area that supports the level of biodiversity in the world’s second largest.

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PETA-INDONESIA

 

Geography

Indonesia has 17,504 islands large and small, around 6000 of them are uninhabited, which spread around the equator, which gives a tropical weather. Indonesia’s position is located at coordinates 6 ° N – 11 ° 08’LS and from 95 ° ‘W – 141 ° 45’BT and is located between two continents, Asia and the continent of Australia / Oceania.

Indonesian territory extends along 3.977 mile between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Indonesia is a land area of 1,922,570 km ² and the area of waters 3,257,483 km ². The island is densely populated island of Java, where half the population of Indonesia live. Indonesia consists of 5 major islands, namely: Java with an area of 132,107 km ², Sumatra, with an area 473,606 km ², Borneo with an area of 539.460 km ², Sulawesi, with an area 189,216 km ², and Papua with an area of 421.981 km ². Indonesia border in the direction of the wind directions, namely:

  • North: Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and South China Sea
  • South: Australia, East Timor and Indonesia Indian Ocean
  • West: Indonesia Indian Ocean
  • East: Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, and Pacific Ocean

 

Politics and government

Indonesia runs presidential republican government of a democratic multiparty. As well as in countries other democracies, the political system in Indonesia is based on the Trias Politica is the legislative, executive and judiciary. Legislative power is held by an institution called the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) which consists of two bodies of the Parliament, whose members consist of representatives of political parties and the DPD, whose members represent the provinces in Indonesia. Each region is represented by 4 people directly elected by the people in their respective regions.

People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. But after the 4th amendment to the Assembly is not the highest anymore. Membership of the Assembly changed after the 1945 Amendments to the 1999-2004 period. All the members of the Assembly is a member of the House, plus the members of DPD (DPD). [25] DPR and DPD members elected by popular vote and was sworn in five-year term. Since 2004, the Assembly is a bicameral parliament, after the creation of the DPD as a second bedroom. Previously, members of the Assembly are all members of the House plus the messenger class. MPR currently chaired by Taufik Kiemas. Members of the Assembly now consists of 550 members of Parliament and 128 members of the DPD. Parliament currently chaired by Marzuki Alie, whereas DPD currently chaired by Irman Gusman.

Istana NegaraExecutive institutions centered on the president, vice presidents, and cabinet. Cabinet in Indonesia is that the Presidential Cabinet of ministers responsible to the president and do not represent political parties in parliament. However, the current President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of the Democratic Party carried by a number of leaders also pointed to political parties to sit in cabinet. The objective is to maintain stability given the strong government of the legislative position in Indonesia. But the important posts and strategically generally filled by the party’s Minister without portfolio (coming from someone who is considered an expert in his field).

Judiciary institutions since the reform and the 1945 amendment executed by the Supreme Court, the Judicial Commission, and the Constitutional Court, including administration by the judges. Nevertheless the presence of the Minister of Justice and Human Rights will be retained.

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Culture

ngremoIndonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each ethnic culture that has evolved over the centuries, influenced by Indian culture, Arabic, Chinese, and Europeans, namely termasuklah Malays own culture. An example of Javanese and Balinese dances have a traditional and cultural aspects of Hindu mythology, such as shadow puppets featuring stories of incidents of Hindu mythological Ramayana and Baratayuda. Many dances also containing Islamic values. Some of them can be found in areas such as Sumatra Meuseukat dance and dance Ratéb Seudati from Aceh.

Art rhymes, gurindam, etc., from various regions like rhyme Malays, and other rhymes rhymes-often used in certain events of the event, performing arts, and others.

BatikIn the field of fashion famous cultural heritage around the world is batik. Some areas are famous for batik industry include Yogyakarta, Solo, Cirebon, Pandeglang, Garut, Tasikmalaya and Pekalongan. Batik is also claimed by Malaysia with batik industry.] Clothing native to Indonesia from Sabang to Merauke is recognizable from other features that apply in each area include baju kurung with songketnya from West Sumatra (Minangkabau), ulos cloths from Sumatra North (Batak), fashion kebaya, fashion typical of Dayak in Kalimantan, clothes bodo from South Sulawesi, fashion berkoteka from Papua and so on.

The most dominant influence in the architecture is the architecture of India Indonesia; but there are also influences from the architecture of China, Arab, and Europe.

Karapan SapiThe most popular sports in Indonesia are badminton / badminton and football; Indonesia Super League is the league major soccer clubs in Indonesia. Traditional sports include sepak takraw and karapan cattle in Madura. In areas with a history of inter-tribal wars, fighting contest is held, as caci in Flores, and Festival in Sumba. Pencak silat is a martial art unique from Indonesian territory. The martial arts are sometimes displayed on the show events that are usually followed by a traditional Indonesian music of the gamelan and other traditional musical arts in accordance with the homelands. Sports in Indonesia are usually oriented to men and spektator sports gambling is often associated with illegal in Indonesia. [55] Art music in Indonesia, both traditional and modern is very much stretched from Sabang to Merauke.

Every province in Indonesia have a traditional music with its own trademark. Including traditional music from kroncong Portuguese descendants in the Tugu, Jakarta, which is known by all the people of Indonesia and even to foreign countries. There is also a populist music in Indonesia known as dangdut music influenced by Arab, Indian, and Malays.

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Traditional musical instrument which is typical of Indonesian musical instrument has a wide variety of various regions in Indonesia, but many of the traditional Indonesian musical instruments ‘stolen’ by other countries for the benefit of the addition of culture and art to patent his own music with the copyright of the cultural arts Indonesia. Indonesian traditional music instruments include:

  • AngklungAngklung
  • Bende
  • Calung
  • Dermenan
  • Gamelan
  • Gandang Tabuik
  • Gendang Bali
  • Gendang Karo
  • Gendang Melayu
  • Gong Kemada
  • Gong Lambus
  • Jidor
  • Kecapi Flute
  • Kendang Java
  • Kenong
  • Kulintang
  • Rebab
  • Rebana
  • Saluang
  • Saron
  • Sasando
  • Serunai
  • Seurune Kale
  • Suling Lembang
  • Suling Sunda
  • Talempong
  • Tanggetong
  • Tifa…..  and so on

Nasi CampurIndonesian cuisine varies depending on the region. Rice is the staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are an important ingredient. Indonesian film industry’s popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, despite its popularity diminished in the early 1990s. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year increases.

Evidence of the oldest writings in Indonesia is the Sanskrit language inscriptions in the 5th century AD. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli who criticized the Dutch treatment of Indonesia during Dutch colonial times; Muhammad Yamin and Hamka who are writers and pre-independence politician, and Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia’s novel creator of the most famous. In addition to novels, literature written in the form of Indonesia are also poems, rhymes, and poems. Chairil Anwar is a writer of poetry Indonesia’s most famous. Many Indonesian people have a strong oral tradition, which helped to define and preserve their cultural identity. Press freedom in Indonesia increased after the end of President Suharto’s rule. Television stations, including ten national private television stations and regional networks that compete with domestic television station TVRI. Private radio stations to broadcast their news and programs of foreign broadcasters. Reportedly there are 20 million internet users in Indonesia in 2007. Internet usage is limited to a minority population, estimated at about 8.5%.

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Komodo National Park

Komodo National Park lies in the Wallacea Region of Indonesia, identified by WWF and Conservation International as a global conservation priority area. The Park is located between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores at the border of the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) provinces. It includes three major islands, Komodo, Rinca and Padar, and numerous smaller islands together totaling 603 km2 of land. The total size of Komodo National Park is presently 1,817 km2. Proposed extensions of 25 km2 of land (Banta Island) and 479 km2 of marine waters would bring the total surface area up to 2,321 km2.

KomodoKomodo National Park was established in 1980 and was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1986. The park was initially established to conserve the unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), first discovered by the scientific world in 1911 by J.K.H. Van Steyn. Since then conservation goals have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both marine and terrestrial.

Komodo National Park is currently among three destination in Indonesia that has been qualified in the New 7 Wonders of Nature campaign held by the New 7 Wonders Foundation (two other candidates is Lake Toba and Krakatau Island).

The majority of the people in and around the Park are fishermen originally from Bima (Sumbawa), Manggarai, South Flores, and South Sulawesi. Those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku Bajau or Bugis ethnic groups. The Suku Bajau were originally nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Descendents of the original people of Komodo, the Ata Modo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is slowly being integrated with the recent migrants.

Little is known of the early history of the Komodo islanders. They were subjects of the Sultanate of Bima, although the island’s remoteness from Bima meant its affairs were probably little troubled by the Sultanate other than by occasional demand for tribute.

There are presently almost 4,000 inhabitants living within the park spread out over four settlements (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, and Papagaran). All villages existed prior to 1980 before the area was declared a national park. In 1928 there were only 30 people living in Komodo Village, and approximately 250 people on Rinca Island in 1930. The population increased rapidly, and by 1999, there were 281 families numbering 1,169 people on Komodo, meaning that the local population had increased exponentially. Komodo Village has had the highest population increase of the villages within the Park, mostly due to migration by people from Sape, Manggarai, Madura, and South Sulawesi. The number of buildings in Kampung Komodo has increased rapidly from 30 houses in 1958, to 194 houses in 1994, and 270 houses in 2000. Papagaran village is similar in size, with 258 families totaling 1,078 people. As of 1999, Rinca’s population was 835, and Kerora’s population was 185 people. The total population currently living in the Park is 3,267 people, while 16,816 people live in the area immediately surrounding the Park.

The average level of education in the villages of Komodo National Park is grade four of elementary school. There is an elementary school located in each of the villages, but new students are not recruited each year. On average, each village has four classes and four teachers. Most of the children from the small islands in the Kecamatan Komodo (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, Papagaran, Mesa) do not finish elementary school. Less than 10% of those which do graduate from elementary school will continue to high school since the major economic opportunity (fishing) does not require further education. Children must be sent to Labuan Bajo to attend high school, but this is rarely done in fishermen’s families.

Most of the villages located in and around the Park have few fresh water facilities available, if any, particularly during the dry season. Water quality declines during this time period and many people become ill. Malaria and diarrhea are rampant in the area. On Mesa island, with a population of around 1,500 people, there is no fresh water available. Fresh water is brought by boat in jerrycans from Labuan Bajo. Each family needs an average of Rp 100,000.- per month to buy fresh water (2000). Almost every village has a local medical facility with staff, and at least a paramedic. The quality of medical care facilities is low.

SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ANTHROPOLOGIC CONDITIONS

Traditional Customs: Traditional communities in Komodo, Flores and Sumbawa have been subjected to outside influences and the influence of traditional customs is dwindling. Television, radio, and increased mobility have all played a part in accelerating the rate of change. There has been a steady influx of migrants into the area. At the moment nearly all villages consist of more than one ethnic group.

Religion: The majority of fishermen living in the villages in the vicinity of the Park are Muslims. Hajis have a strong influence in the dynamics of community development. Fishermen hailing from South Sulawesi (Bajau, Bugis) and Bima are mostly Moslems. The community from Manggarai are mostly Christians.

Anthropology and Language: There are several cultural sites within the Park, particularly on Komodo Island. These sites are not well documented, however, and there are many questions concerning the history of human inhabitance on the island. Outside the Park, in Warloka village on Flores, there is a Chinese trading post remnant of some interest. Archeological finds from this site have been looted in the recent past. Most communities in and around the Park can speak Bahasa Indonesia. Bajo language is the language used for daily communication in most communities.

TERRESTRIAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Komodo IslandTopography: The topography is varied, with slopes from 0 – 80%. There is little flat ground, and that is generally located near the beach. The altitude varies from sea level to 735 m above sea level. The highest peak is Gunung Satalibo on Komodo Island.

Geology: The islands in Komodo National Park are volcanic in origin. The area is at the juncture of two continental plates: Sahul and Sunda. The friction of these two plates has led to large volcanic eruptions and caused the up-thrusting of coral reefs. Although there are no active volcanoes in the park, tremors from Gili Banta (last eruption 1957) and Gunung Sangeang Api (last eruption 1996) are common. West Komodo probably formed during the Jurasic era approximately 130 million years ago. East Komodo, Rinca, and Padar probably formed approximately 49 million years ago during the Eocene era.

Climate: Komodo National Park has little or no rainfall for approximately 8 months of the year, and is strongly impacted by monsoonal rains. High humidity levels year round are only found in the quasi-cloud forests on mountain tops and ridges. Temperatures generally range from 170C to 340C, with an average humidity level of 36%. From November through March the wind is from the west and causes large waves that hit the entire length of Komodo island’s west beach. From April through October the wind is dry and large waves hit the south beaches of Rinca and Komodo islands.

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

The terrestrial ecosystems are strongly affected by the climate: a lengthy dry season with high temperatures and low rainfall, and seasonal monsoon rains. The Park is situated in a transition zone between Australian and Asian flora and fauna. Terrestrial ecosystems include open grass-woodland savanna, tropical deciduous (monsoon) forest, and quasi cloud forest.

Due to the dry climate, terrestrial plant species richness is relatively low. The majority of terrestrial species are xerophytic and have specific adaptations to help them obtain and retain water. Past fires have selected for species that are fire-adapted, such as some grass species and shrubs. Terrestrial plants found in Komodo National Park include grasses, shrubs, orchids, and trees. Important food tree species for the local fauna include Jatropha curkas, Zizyphus sp., Opuntia sp., Tamarindus indicus, Borassus flabellifer, Sterculia foetida, Ficus sp., Cicus sp., ‘Kedongdong hutan’ (Saruga floribunda), and ‘Kesambi’ (Schleichera oleosa).

TERRESTRIAL FAUNA

The terrestrial fauna is of rather poor diversity in comparison to the marine fauna. The number of terrestrial animal species found in the Park is not high, but the area is important from a conservation perspective as some species are endemic.. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin (e.g., deer, pig, macaques, civet). Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin. These include the orange-footed scrubfowl, the lesser sulpher-crested cockatoo and the nosy friarbird.

Reptiles: The most famous of Komodo National Park’s reptiles is the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). It is among the world’s largest reptiles and can reach 3 meters or more in length and weigh over 70kg. To find out more about this fascinating creature click here.

Other than the Komodo Dragon twelve terrestrial snake species are found on the island. including the cobra (Naja naja sputatrix), Russel’s pit viper (Vipera russeli), and the green tree vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris). Lizards include 9 skink species (Scinidae), geckos (Gekkonidae), limbless lizards (Dibamidae), and, of course, the monitor lizards (Varanidae). Frogs include the Asian Bullfrog (Kaloula baleata), Oreophyne jeffersoniana and Oreophyne darewskyi. They are typically found at higher, moister altitudes.

Mammals: Mammals include the Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), the main prey of the Komodo dragon, horses (Equus sp.), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), wild boar (Sus scrofa vittatus), long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus lehmanni), the endemic Rinca rat (Rattus rintjanus), and fruit bats. One can also find goats, dogs and domestic cats.

Birds: One of the main bird species is the orange-footed scrub fowl (Megapodius reinwardti), a ground dwelling bird. In areas of savanna, 27 species were observed. Geopelia striata and Streptopelia chinensis were the most common species. In mixed deciduous habitat, 28 bird species were observed, and Philemon buceroides, Ducula aenea, and Zosterops chloris were the most common.

MARINE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

The marine area constitutes 67% of the Park. The open waters in the Park are between 100 and 200 m deep. The straits between Rinca and Flores and between Padar and Rinca, are relatively shallow (30 to 70 m deep), with strong tidal currents. The combination of strong currents, coral reefs and islets make navigation around the islands in Komodo National Park difficult and dangerous. Sheltered deep anchorage is available at the bay of Loh Liang on Komodo’s east coast, the South East coast of Padar, and the bays of Loh Kima and Loh Dasami on Rinca.

In the North of the Park water temperature ranges between 25 – 29°C. In the middle, the temperature ranges between 24 and 28°C. The temperatures are lowest in the South, ranging from 22 – 28°C. Water salinity is about 34 ppt and the water is quite clear, although the waters closer to the islands are relatively more turbid.

MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

Indonesia is the only equatorial region in the world where there is an exchange of marine flora and fauna between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Passages in Nusa Tenggara (formerly the Lesser Sunda Islands) between the Sunda and Sahul shelves allow movement between the Pacific and Indian oceans. The three main ecosystems in Komodo National Park are seagrass beds, coral reefs, and mangrove forests. The Park is probably a regular cetacean migration route.

MARINE FLORA

The three major coastal marine plants are algae, seagrasses and mangrove trees. Algae are primitive plants, which do not have true roots, leaves or stems. An important reef-building algae is the red coralline algae, which actually secretes a hard limestone skeleton that can encrust and cement dead coral together. Seagrasses are modern plants that produce flowers, fruits and seeds for reproduction. As their name suggests, they generally look like large blades of grass growing underwater in sand near the shore. Thallasia sp. and Zastera spp. are the common species found in the Park. Mangroves trees can live in salty soil or water, and are found throughout the Park. An assessment of mangrove resources identified at least 19 species of true mangroves and several more species of mangrove associates within the Park’s borders.

MARINE FAUNA

Komodo National Park includes one of the world’s richest marine environments. It consists of forams, cnidaria (includes over 260 species of reef building coral), sponges (70 species), ascidians, marine worms, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, cartilaginous and bony fishes (over 1,000 species), marine reptiles, and marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and dugongs). Some notable species with high commercial value include sea cucumbers (Holothuria), Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), and groupers.

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Komodo Dragon

Komodo National Park lies in the Wallacea Region, identified by WWF and Conservation International as a global conservation priority area, and is located in the center of the Indonesian archipelago, between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. Komodo National Park includes three major islands: Komodo, Rinca and Padar, as well as numerous smaller islands creating a total surface area (marine and land) of more than 1,800 km2.

Komodo Dragon

Descendents of the original people of Komodo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is slowly being integrated with the recent migrants. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin. Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin. These include the orange-footed scrubfowl, the lesser sulpher-crested cockatoo and the nosy friarbird. The most famous of Komodo National Park’s animals is the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). I

Tour to Komodo is now served from Denpasar Bali. There not many operator and must be definitely confirmed prior your departure. It is quite difficult to find mobile signal in Komodo area so things must be perfectly prepared.

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